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- Regione formata da 2 province: Perugia, Terni
Chief town - Perugia
Surface- kmq 8456
National Parks - National Park of Mountain Sibillini (1990)
|Origin of the Name|
|Reliefs - Passes - Coasts - Islands|
|Agriculture - Stock-Farm - Fishing|
|Industry - Tourism|
|Position and Frontier|
|Rivers - Lakes|
Origin of the name:
Originally in this Region lived two ancient italic people: Umbris and Etruschis. To the Roman epoch of August emperor, that determined the confinements, this Region was extended up to the adriatic coast of the Marche and to west it left to Etruria the zone of Lake Trasimeno. After the fall of the empire Romano the Region was divided between Longobardis and Byzantines. In the time these zones remained always uniforms in so many small states, among which became the Dominions of Monferratos and Malatestas very powerful.
Reliefs - Passes - Coasts -
The greatest mountainous chain of Umbria is given by Appennino Umbro-Marchigiano, situated to the border with Marche. The expanse of Appennino is extended by the pass of the Mouth Trabaria to Pitchfork Capine up to climb to Sibillinis Mountains, in which we find the tallest peak that is Vector Mountain with his 2478 ms. ; going down toward the basin of Lake Trasimeno and the valley of Tevere are found more steep walls and tops very round off. Over Tevere, parallel to the mountains of Antiappennino tosco and laziale, other less important mountainous chains are found and not very tall that limit the border of south and southeast. Between the high ground appenniniche and those antiappenniniches, find more or less numerous great basins, almost level. The principal level zones are the valley of Tevere called Val Tiberina and Valley Umbra, crossed by the rivers Topino, Clitunno and Chiascio. The valley of the zone of Tevere is born very narrow and disconnected, but after Perugia it is regularized and it is extended in ample green lawns. The other level zones more important are the basins of Cascia, Norcia, Gubbio, Terni and Gualdo Tadino. These zones are very fertile and are surrounded from hills. In the past these basins were of the lakes.
|Dipped in the mountains of Appennino Umbro-Marchigiano we find the predominantly hilly and verdant territory of Umbria. The whole zone is introduced with a follow of wide irregular valleys that compose a green undulated panorama; for this motive it is called ‘Umbria green '. In the territory of Umbria flows Tevere with its prepared tributaries either to the right that to the left; the tributaries have fed to them directed by streams and sources, that appear on the surface to the feet of the mountains and that thanks to the calcareous composition allow to filter the water that goes down from the subsoil, before appear on the surface. The extraordinary vegetation is given by the abundant water of the subsoil.||
Characteristic of this green panorama is the presence of numerous sanctuaries, that testify faith since the times most distant of the population and the castles that let imagine the fierce struggles and the rivalries of the rich. Also the modern structures not missing, this region still maintains its originality in the towns, some built by the people Etruschi and Romans. During the period of the Middle Ages, were founded some free Common, that were of great importance and wealth; this has shown from the numerous public buildings and from the splendid churches built in that epoch. .
Agriculture - Stock-farm -
Agriculture is not flourishing in Umbria either for the systems of cultivation withdrawn, also because the varied zones have divided in small ownerships that have usually conducted to mezzadria. The big agricultural concentration is situated in particular way in the valleys, in the basins and in the western part of the Region. Between the principal crops we remember that of the wheat that is its most diffused of the sugar beets and of the tobacco. Small productions of wine and oil offer some products of good quality. A particularity is the crop of the hypocrites and the most famous are those black of Norcia. The breeding more developed it is that of the swines, while once was existing, in the mountains, also that of sheep that today it is as disappearing. The thick woods give the possibility of substantial supplies of lumber.
|Industry - Tourism:|
||The industrialized fittings have assembled in the zones of Perugia and Terni. We remember that in Umbria there are a lot of factories and handicraft enterprises. Between the greatest industries we find those heavy for the production of electric energy, in the proximities of Falls of Marmore. Other types of industries are those alimentary, textile and of the clothes. To end we find a lot of productions of ancient tradition between which that of the paper and the typographic industries. Having also dipped in a beautiful landscape with an artistic patrimony as the sanctuaries, the old cities medioevali, the museums, the cultural demonstrations and folcloristiche, Umbria doesn't find with the tourism a big income for the inside economy.|
Position and Frontier :
In the italian peninsula, the only Region that has not bathed from the sea is really Umbria, that confines to north and to east with Marche, to south with Lazio and to east with Lazio and Tuscany.
Rivers - Lakes:
Umbria is rich of rivers. The greatest is Tevere, that is born from Chimney Mountain and after having crossed Tuscany it enters in the territory of Umbria for then to continue in Lazio, where it goes to receive the waters of its great tributary: Black river. Black river that before entering in Tevere receives the waters of Velino forming so the famous fall of Marmore. In Umbria we find Lake Trasimeno, little depth and its surface goes slowly decrease. This lake for extension is the fourth of Italy. There are other more small lakes; the most meaningful is Lake of Corbara and Lake of Chiusi situated to the border with Tuscany.
The Region having confined from the mountainous reliefs it doesn't profit any influence of the sea. The climate is continental with winters colds and warm summers. The precipitations are abundant especially in the proximities of the chains appenniniche. Often in the basins and in the more small level lines, in summer there is not wind and the air it is sultry. In general Umbria enjoys of a good due climate to the rich vegetation.
In Umbria the relationship between territory-inhabitants is under the national average. There are no big urban agglomerations; the populated zones are those of Valley Umbra and of Basin of Terni. The cities in these zones the 160 thousand inhabitants don't overcome. As in almost all the regions to mountainous character there is the typical tendency to abandon the mountainous and hilly tall zones, to move to the cities in the lowland or to emigrate in the other regions or even abroad.
Built above the high ground or in the necks according to rules medioevali, that allowed to defend the cities from the attacks of other people, today the tallest cities extend to be more and more isolate really because they find big difficulties of communication for their urbanistic positions. The road and railway fittings more important pass to the outside of the Region only. The only important streets are that railway that connects Ancona with Rome passing for Terni and Foligno and that road that from Rome it arrives to the port of Ascoli, in Marche, touching the cities of Foligno and Spoleto.
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