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Provinces - This region has 10 provinces: Arezzo, Firenze, Grosseto, Livorno, Lucca, Massa Carrara, Pisa, Pistoia, Prato, Siena
Chief town - Firenze
Surface - kmq 22993
National Parks - National Park of Arcipelago Toscano (1989) National Park of Monte Falterona, Campigna and of Foreste Casentinesi (1990)
Russian Version
graphic toscana

toscana Origin of the Name
Reliefs - Passes - Coasts - Islands
Agriculture - Stock-Farm - Fishing
Industry - Tourism
Position and Frontier
Rivers - Lakes

Origin of the name:
The inclusive zone between Arno and Tevere was the territory of Etruschis or Tuschi in the epoch  before the Romans . The name of the Region in that times was Etruria or Tuscia. Subsequently from Tuscia was formed the name in Tuscany.

Reliefs - Passes - Coasts - Islands:
Only with some top, Appennino Tosco-Emiliano overcomes the 2000 meters (Mountain Cimone, Mountain Cusna). In the part more to north of Arno, Appennino contains a mountainous zone formed by more tall mountains: Alps Apuane and the chain of Pratomagno. Between Appennino and the coast we find Antiappennino with isolated mountains and more low; we remember the Hills of Chianti, Hills Metallifere, Argentario and Massiccio of Amiata Mountain, where an ancient out volcano is found. The passes are important because they favor the communications between Lowland Padana, Central Italy and the slope tirrenico. The most important is: the Footstep of Cisa, that connects Massa Carrara to Spezia, the Footstep of Abetone between Pistoia and Modena, the Footstep of Futa and Raticosa that connect Florence to Bologna and the Footstep of Mandrioli that connects Oriental Tuscany to Romagna. The coasts are low, uniforms and sandy in the northern zone and from the Promontory of Piombino to Lazio; while between Livorno and Promontory of Piombino are tall and rocky. To the breadth of the Tuscan coasts there are some islands that compose Tuscan archipelago. The most important is: Gorgona, Capraia, Island in Elba, Pianosa, Montecristo,  island of Lily and the island of Giannuti. Not the very wide lowlands are fertile, and intensely populated. The principal is: Valdarno Superiore, Valdarno Inferiore, Versilia, Alps Apuane and Maremma.

The landscape in Tuscany is in a large extent hilly and mountainous; the few level areas have limited to the coastal zones and the fund of the valleys. Manifold are the aspects that offer a harmonious landscape composed from mountains, hills and lowlands. The dense mountains of vegetation have covered of oaks, chestnut trees, beech trees and firs. In the hilly tops we find the ulivis, the cypresses or big cultivated expanses to vineyards, where are built in way isolated houses farmer's or small suburbs. The cities rich in history are placed in the level areas of the fund valley and they still maintain preserved numerous monuments and artistic treasures. Zones of wild beach are still alternated with modern bathing zones. The ground and the climate favor agriculture. The subsoil is enough rich of mineral.

Sees of Florence
Sees of Florence

Agriculture - Stock-farm - Fishing:
The agriculture ago half century was the source of primary wealth. Today we realize that industrial activities have overpowered the agricultural job; it is not difficult to find uncultivated countries and abandoned houses. The grapevine and the ulivo are the principal crops. From the first one the famous wines of the zone of Chianti are drawn. Other crops of small importance are cereals, fruit and vegetables. In constant development we find the crops of sugar beets and tobacco. The breeding concerns the cattle and the swines, where the production of meat is considerable. The fishing is not very developed. Viareggio and Cecina are the greatest fishing harbors, even if in the last years Livorno has assumed a certain importance with the port of fishing-boats of fishing of tall sea.

Industry - Tourism:

The Towers of S. Giminiano
The Towers of S. Giminiano

The big industries are not very develop. Those present are all formed by the small and averages firms. The more developed it is that mining and iron in the zones of Piombino and Livorno. Another characteristic production is that of the electric energy drawn by the blowpipes boraciferi of the zone of Larderello. Other sectors of detach are, that mechanic (steel pipes, pads to spheres, railway cars, textile cars and motorcycles), that chemical (sour solforico and boric, dyes, fertilizers and pharmaceutical), that of the glass, that calzaturiero and that of clothes, that textile and that of the tanning of the skin even if it pollutes the courses of water a lot. Of relief are the caves of marble and alabaster. The tourism is the principal industry in Tuscany, thanks to the zones of Italian interest not only, but above all international.

The destinations more aspired are three: the first one for the famous cities of historical-cultural interest as Florence, Siena, Pisa, Arezzo; the second that of the bathing zones with Viareggio, Marina of Mass, Beaches of Camaiore, Forte of Marbles and the island in Elba; third are that of the thermal zones with Montecatini, Chianciano and Baths of Lucca.

Position and Frontier:
To west we find the coastal tirrenico, while from the oriental part Appennino Tosco-Emiliano divides the Region from Emilia Romagna and from Liguria. From the border with Umbria and Marche follows a sinuous line along the mountains that are issued in Appennino. To south a hilly zone divides it from Lazio. The before islands the coast, belongs to the Region. To north Tuscany confines with Emilia Romagna and a brief line of Marche, to east with Marche and Umbria, to south with Lazio, to west with Ligure Sea and Tyrrhenian and a brief line of Liguria.

Rivers - Lakes:
The irregular reliefs make the course of the rivers, that go down, long and tortuous. Arno that is born from Falterona Mountain is the most important. For length it is the eighth Italian river and its basin occupies a third of the Region. Arno receives numerous tributaries: Sieve and the right Bisenzio, Chiana, Pesa,  Elsa and Era. The torrential characteristics of these rivers, let at times overflow Arno provoking floods. We remember that disastrous of 1966 that  flooded Florence. Other important rivers are Serchia, Cecina, Ombrione and Magra that flow in Tyrrhenian. Tevere and Fiora cross for a brief line Tuscan territory entering in Lazio then.
Il clima è generalmente mite, soprattutto nella fascia costiera. Il litorale è spesso battuto dallo Scirocco, un vento caldo umido proveniente dall’Africa, che provoca frequenti precipitazioni. Le catene appenniniche riparano la Regione dai venti freddi che soffiano da nord est.

The climate is mild generally, especially in the coastal band. The shore has often beaten from Scirocco, a deriving damp warm wind from Africa, that provokes frequent precipitations. The chains of Appennini mend the Region from the twenty colds that blow from north east.

The population has assembled in the inclusive zone mostly between Florence, Livorno, Pisa, Lucca and Pistoia, where we find a third of the regional general population. Densely other inhabited zones are those of Arezzo, Massa and Siena. The rest of the Tuscan territory has populated poorly. In Tuscany more than in other regions, we notice the abandonment of the mountains and the hills, because many farmers prefer the job in the city rather than to work earth. In Tuscany we find numerous immigrated among which also many agriculturists of the Midday, that take possession of abandoned powers.

A sharp pain net either railway that road and motorway, colleague Tuscany in all its places to the rest of Italy. The greatest railway lines are those of Turin-Genoa-Pisa-Rome and Milan-Bologna-Florence-Rome. In the oriental part of the region passes the highway of the Sun, while Siena and Florence have been connecting from a speedway. The Tuscan principal airport is situated in Pisa and precisely in the place of St. Giustot.

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