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Province - Regione formata da 4 province: Cagliari, Nuoro, Oristano, Sassari
Capoluogo - Cagliari
Superficie - kmq 24090
Parchi Nazionali - Parco Nazionale del Golfo di Orosei, Gennargentu e dell'isola dell'Asinara (1991)

Russian Version
graphic sardegna

sardegna Origin of the Name
Reliefs - Passes - Coasts - Islands
Agriculture - Stock-Farm - Fishing
Industry - Tourism
Position and Frontier
Rivers - Lakes

Origin of the name:
The name derives from the ancient people that lived in the region: the Sardinians. Colonized by Fenici, then from Greek, it was from these last call Ienusa, because in its geographical form it seemed the form of a human foot.

Reliefs - Passes - Coasts - Islands:
The mountainous territory is constituted to north from Limbara Mountains, while in the central oriental zone rises the thick of Mountains of Gennargentu, whose peak more tall it is that of Punta La Marmora. Disconnected toward west there are Mountains of Alà, of Goceano, of Marghine and other brief chains. In the southern part of the island there are Mountains of Iglesiente and Sulcis where of the lead mines and zinc are there. The mountain tallest of this chain are Linas Mountain and Caravius. In the part northerner and Oriental the coasts are rocky, while in the part westerner and Southerner the coasts are low and sandy and partly marshy. Departing from north and moving each other from Punta Falcone up to Capo Comino the coast is very jagged and rich of inlets with some small bays.

 Splendid tourist zone of Arbatax
Splendid tourist zone of Arbatax

Here Gulf of Olbia is found. From Capo Comino to Capo Carbonare the coast is linear almost all, and it is interrupted only by Gulf of Orosei.
Between Capo Falconara and Capo Spartivento is opened Gulf of Cagliari. The whole western coast, from Capo to Capo of Argentiera is very more complex. The biggest gulf is that of Oristano. The northern coast introduces the tortuous Gulf of Asinara and the wide inlets, up to Punta Falcone. To the two extremities of the island we find some small islands that are few distant from the coast. The principal is: to north Asinara, Maddalena, Caprera, Molara and Tavolara; to south St. Pietro and Sant'Antiocco of volcanic origin, that it attached to the dry land for a brief line.

Sardinia is a region with one detail and only aspect. The panorama that lives these zones can be identified in  Dolomiteses, or, the roads seem those of Spain. A thing is certain: this Region always has thousand different faces the one from the other. The vegetation is composed by expanses of grass and stones, from cork oaks, ulivi and palms, ponds populated by flamingos, thin to cross animals as wild boars and bucks. The territory is predominantly mountainous and hilly, where wide green valleys are opened with all more varied tones. The few level areas are surrounded from the hills. Confined by enormous blocks of rock, long beaches of white and pink sand appear.  

Agriculture - Stock-farm - Fishing:
The reclamations done to the level coastal grounds, have allowed of to develop the crops mostly, but the principal problem always stays the little fertility of the ground, that doesn't allow of to pick up products in great quantity. The ulivo and the grapevine are cultivated in the hilly zones. Wheat's production, bowline and vegetables are cultivated in Plain of Campidano. Notable is the production of beets and oranges. Typical product of Sardinia is the cork oak, which is favored by the very arid ground. The breeding of the ovinis exists since the most ancient traditions. Very prosperous therefore is cheeses' production, meat and wool. The fishing has never interested the Sardinians since the antiquity. The only developed fishing is that of the tuna, and of the lobsters. In the coasts eels and mullets are fished. Very important is the fishing of the coral.

Industry - Tourism:

Nuraghe Saint Barbaric in Macomer in nuoro
Nuraghe Saint Barbaric
in Macomer in Nuoro

Some between the biggest existing petrochemical complexes in Europe are found in the zone of Porto Torres in province of Sassari and in the proximities of Cagliari. Modest are the manufacturing productions of the paper, of the cheeses, of the laminates in allumino and of the chemical products. Enough developed is the industry that extract , thanks to zinc's layers, lead and coal that Sardinia is rich of it in the subsoil. With the construction of the artificial lakes on the rivers Tirso, Flumendosa and Coghinas the production of the electric energy overcomes the regional requirement. Some handicraft products still have a some economic weight. 

Between these we remember the production of carpets and wool covers, ceramics, beaten iron and the workmanship of the coral. The tourism is very developed in the last years especially. The beauties of the island attract many tourists. The places more frequented are Coast Smeralda, Bay of Alghero, Gulf of Cagliari and Gallura.

Position and Frontier:
Positioned in the northern part of Mediterranean Sea, Sardinia has bathed to east from Tyrrhenian Sea and to west of Sea of Sardinia. To north we find the narrow of Mouths of Bonifacio that it divides it from Corsica, politically ownership of France. Some smallest islands can be found to north and south of the island.

Rivers - Lakes:
The rivers of Sardinia are to torrential character. The principal is Tirso that flows in Gulf of Oristano. Other important rivers are Coghinas, Flumendosa and Samassi or Flumini Mannu.

The climate is mild. In the coastal zones the winter is lukewarm, while enough rigid on the tallest mountains. The summer period is warm and dry. The rains are scarce and they are assembled to the beginning in the spring and the end in the autumn. In the winter period the island is struck by the wind mistral that is a very violent western wind.

The population is thickened in the cities and in the villages, leaving in this way vast desert zones, where the only forms of life are the shepherds. The only chief town of province that overcomes the two hundred thousand inhabitants is proper Cagliari. In the times, the illnesses as the malaria, the hostile attacks of the pirates or other populations, the Sardinians have pushed to leave the coasts and to advance in the more sheltered hilly and mountainous zones preferring the pasture to the fishing as form of maintenance. That's why the Sardinians don't also have a tradition marinara having the whole bordering region to the sea. The Sardinians have always lived in their community without possession contacts with other cultures. Only in the last 50 years the isolation has broken. the traditional uses and the social conditions have changed. In the coastal inhabited centers where once there were malarial lowlands, today the most beautiful and famous places bathing existing  rise to the world with some ultramodern tourist fittings.

The island is connected to Italy thanks to the ferries that make head to the harbors of Olbia, Porto Torres, Cagliari and Sant'Antiocco. The road net is already very efficient, but with the big influx of tourism and the development of the city, it is widening each other. The construction of a speedway puts in connection Cagliari-Oristano-Sassari-Porto Torres and with the secondary nets it also reaches the secondary centers more insides. The railway net is limited to put in communication the urban centers more developed: the conformation of the ground hinders the construction of other lines of it. The most important airports are those of Elmas next to Cagliari, Fertilia to few kilometers from Alghero and Venafiorita in the  proximities of Olbia.

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